Richard Iii.

Richard Iii. „Ich bin entschlossen, einen Dreckskerl aufzuführen ...“

Richard III. war von bis zu seinem Tod in der Schlacht von Bosworth König von England. Er war der letzte englische Herrscher aus dem Haus Plantagenet und zugleich der letzte, der auf einem Schlachtfeld fiel. Richard III. (* 2. Oktober auf Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire; † August bei Market Bosworth, Leicestershire) war von bis zu seinem. Richard III. ist der Name folgender Personen: Richard III. (Normandie) (~–​), Herzog der Normandie; Richard III. (England) (–), König von. Daneben machen sich noch Quelleneinflüsse der True Tragedy of Richard the Third und des Mirror for Magistrates geltend. Von all diesen ist Thomas Mores. RICHARD III. William Shakespeare. Wuppertaler Bühnen. _0JSjpg. Regie: Henri Hüster Bühne & Kostüme: Hanna Rode. Choreographie: Vasna Aguilar.

Richard Iii.

Richard III. ist der Name folgender Personen: Richard III. (Normandie) (~–​), Herzog der Normandie; Richard III. (England) (–), König von. König Richard III. / King Richard III. | William Shakespeare, Frank Günther (Übers.​) | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand. William Shakespeare. König Richard III. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE König Richard III., W. Shakespeare Jazzybee Verlag Jürgen Beck Fast ganz am Anfang seiner Karriere, noch fast ohne Bühnenerfahrung, schreibt Shakespeare The Tragedy of King Richard the Third und erfindet zusammen. William Shakespeare. König Richard III. WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE König Richard III., W. Shakespeare Jazzybee Verlag Jürgen Beck König Richard III. / King Richard III. | William Shakespeare, Frank Günther (Übers.​) | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand. Produktbeschreibungen. Kurzbeschreibung. Die Tragödie von König Richard III. (​engl. The Tragedy of King Richard the Third) ist ein Drama von William. Richard III. von William Shakespeare ( – ). Übersetzt und bearbeitet von Gabriella Bußacker und Jan Bosse. William Shakespeare schuf so.

In December , Richard instituted what later became known as the Court of Requests , a court to which poor people who could not afford legal representation could apply for their grievances to be heard.

Churchill implies he improved the law of trusts. Richard's death at Bosworth resulted in the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, which had ruled England since the succession of Henry II in There are numerous contemporary, or near-contemporary, sources of information about the reign of Richard III.

However, the debate about Richard's true character and motives continues, both because of the subjectivity of many of the written sources, reflecting the generally partisan nature of writers of this period, and because of the fact that none was written by men with an intimate knowledge of Richard, even if they had met him in person.

During Richard's reign, the historian John Rous praised him as a "good lord" who punished "oppressors of the commons", adding that he had "a great heart".

During his lifetime he was the subject of some attacks. Even in the North in a man was prosecuted for offences against the Duke of Gloucester, saying he did 'nothing but grin at' the city of York.

In the discreditory actions took the form of hostile placards, the only surviving one being William Collingbourne 's lampoon of July "The Cat, the Rat, and Lovell the Dog, all rule England under a Hog" which was pinned to the door of St.

As for Richard's physical appearance, most contemporary descriptions bear out the evidence that aside from having one shoulder higher than the other with chronicler Rous not able to correctly remember which one, as slight as the difference was , Richard had no other noticeable bodily deformity.

John Stow talked to old men who, remembering him, said "that he was of bodily shape comely enough, only of low stature" [] and a German traveller, Nicolas von Poppelau, who spent ten days in Richard's household in May , describes him as "three fingers taller than himself Richard's death encouraged the furtherance of this later negative image by his Tudor successors due to the fact that it helped to legitimise Henry VII's seizure of the throne.

He reversed his earlier position, [] and now portrayed Richard as a freakish individual who was born with teeth and shoulder-length hair after having been in his mother's womb for two years.

His body was stunted and distorted, with one shoulder higher than the other, and he was "slight in body and weak in strength". The Tudors ride high in popular esteem.

Polydore Vergil and Thomas More expanded on this portrayal, emphasising Richard's outward physical deformities as a sign of his inwardly twisted mind.

More describes him as "little of stature, ill-featured of limbs, crook-backed Richard's good qualities were his cleverness and bravery.

All these characteristics are repeated by Shakespeare, who portrays him as having a hunch, a limp and a withered arm. Richard's reputation as a promoter of legal fairness persisted, however.

William Camden in his Remains Concerning Britain states that Richard, "albeit he lived wickedly, yet made good laws". Despite this, the image of Richard as a ruthless power-grabber remained dominant in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The 18th century philosopher and historian David Hume described him as a man who used dissimulation to conceal "his fierce and savage nature" and who had "abandoned all principles of honour and humanity".

Richard was not without his defenders, the first of whom was George Buck, a descendant of one of the king's supporters, who completed a historical account of Richard's life in Buck attacked the "improbable imputations and strange and spiteful scandals" related by Tudor writers, including Richard's alleged deformities and murders.

He located lost archival material, including the Titulus Regius , but also claimed to have seen a letter written by Elizabeth of York, according to which Elizabeth sought to marry the king.

Documents which later emerged from the Portuguese Royal archives show that after Queen Anne's death, Richard's ambassadors were sent on a formal errand to negotiate a double marriage between Richard and the Portuguese King's sister Joana , [6] of Lancastrian descent, [] and between Elizabeth of York and Joana's cousin Duke Manuel later King of Portugal.

Significant among Richard's defenders was Horace Walpole. In Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of King Richard the Third , Walpole disputed all the alleged murders and argued that Richard may have acted in good faith.

He also argued that any physical abnormality was probably no more than a minor distortion of the shoulders. He argued that Henry VII killed the princes and that the bulk of evidence against Richard was nothing more than Tudor propaganda.

Legge argued that Richard's "greatness of soul" was eventually "warped and dwarfed" by the ingratitude of others. Some twentieth-century historians have been less inclined to moral judgement, [] seeing Richard's actions as a product of the unstable times.

In the words of Charles Ross , "the later fifteenth century in England is now seen as a ruthless and violent age as concerns the upper ranks of society, full of private feuds, intimidation, land-hunger, and litigiousness, and consideration of Richard's life and career against this background has tended to remove him from the lonely pinnacle of Villainy Incarnate on which Shakespeare had placed him.

Like most men, he was conditioned by the standards of his age. Other contemporary historians still describe him as, a "power-hungry and ruthless politician" who was still most probably "ultimately responsible for the murder of his nephews.

Apart from Shakespeare, Richard appears in many other works of literature. Two other plays of the Elizabethan era predated Shakespeare's work.

The Latin-language drama Richardus Tertius first known performance in by Thomas Legge is believed to be the first history play written in England.

Both portray him as a man motivated by personal ambition, who uses everyone around him to get his way.

Ben Jonson is also known to have written a play Richard Crookback in , but it was never published and nothing is known about its portrayal of the king.

Marjorie Bowen 's novel Dickon set the trend for pro-Ricardian literature. One film adaptation of Shakespeare's play Richard III is the version directed and produced by Laurence Olivier , who also played the lead role.

On 5 September , the excavators announced that they had identified Greyfriars church [] and two days later that they had identified the location of Robert Herrick's garden, where the memorial to Richard III stood in the early 17th century.

Improbably, the excavators found the remains in the first location in which they dug at the car park. Coincidentally, they lay almost directly under a roughly painted R on the tarmac.

This had existed since the early s to signify a reserved parking space. On 12 September, it was announced that the skeleton discovered during the search might be that of Richard III.

Several reasons were given: the body was of an adult male; it was buried beneath the choir of the church; and there was severe scoliosis of the spine, possibly making one shoulder [] higher than the other to what extent depended on the severity of the condition.

Additionally, there was an object that appeared to be an arrowhead embedded in the spine; and there were perimortem injuries to the skull.

These included a relatively shallow orifice, which is most likely to have been caused by a rondel dagger , and a scooping depression to the skull, inflicted by a bladed weapon, most probably a sword.

Additionally, the bottom of the skull presented a gaping hole, where a halberd had cut away and entered it. Forensic pathologist Dr Stuart Hamilton stated that this injury would have left the individual's brain visible, and most certainly would have been the cause of death.

Dr Jo Appleby, the osteo-archaeologist who excavated the skeleton, concurred and described the latter as "a mortal battlefield wound in the back of the skull".

The base of the skull also presented another fatal wound in which a bladed weapon had been thrust into it, leaving behind a jagged hole.

Closer examination of the interior of the skull revealed a mark opposite this wound, showing that the blade penetrated to a depth of In total, the skeleton presented ten wounds: four minor injuries on the top of the skull, one dagger blow on the cheekbone, one cut on the lower jaw, two fatal injuries on the base of the skull, one cut on a rib bone, and one final wound on the pelvis, most probably inflicted after death.

It is generally accepted that postmortem, Richard's naked body was tied to the back of a horse, with his arms slung over one side and his legs and buttocks over the other.

This presented a tempting target for onlookers, and the angle of the blow on the pelvis suggests that one of them stabbed Richard's right buttock with substantial force, as the cut extends from the back all the way to the front of the pelvic bone and was most probably an act of humiliation.

It is also possible that Richard suffered other injuries which left no trace on the skeleton. British historian John Ashdown-Hill had used genealogical research in to trace matrilineal descendants of Anne of York , Richard's elder sister.

Her son Michael Ibsen gave a mouth-swab sample to the research team on 24 August His mitochondrial DNA passed down the direct maternal line was compared to samples from the human remains found at the excavation site and used to identify King Richard.

This conclusion was based on mitochondrial DNA evidence, [] soil analysis, and dental tests there were some molars missing as a result of caries , as well as physical characteristics of the skeleton which are highly consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance.

However, there were numerous perimortem wounds on the body, and part of the skull had been sliced off with a bladed weapon; [] this would have caused rapid death.

The team concluded that it is unlikely that the king was wearing a helmet in his last moments. Soil taken from the remains was found to contain microscopic roundworm eggs.

Several eggs were found in samples taken from the pelvis, where the king's intestines were, but not from the skull and only very small numbers were identified in soil surrounding the grave.

The findings suggest that the higher concentration of eggs in the pelvic area probably arose from a roundworm infection the King suffered in his life, rather than from human waste dumped in the area at a later date, researchers said.

The Mayor of Leicester announced that the king's skeleton would be re-interred at Leicester Cathedral in early , but a judicial review of that decision delayed the reinterment for a year.

The proposal to have King Richard buried in Leicester attracted some controversy. Those who challenged the decision included fifteen "collateral [non-direct] descendants of Richard III", [] represented by the Plantagenet Alliance , who believed that the body should be reburied in York, as they claim the king wished.

However, Michael Ibsen, who gave the DNA sample that identified the king, gave his support to Leicester's claim to re-inter the body in their cathedral.

He urged the parties, though, to settle out of court in order to "avoid embarking on the Wars of the Roses, Part Two". Richard III thus became the first ancient person of known historical identity whose genome has been sequenced.

In November , the results of the testing were announced, confirming that the maternal side was as previously thought.

Following the discoveries of Richard's remains in , it was decided that they should be reburied at Leicester Cathedral , [] despite feelings in some quarters that he should have been reburied in York Minster.

His cathedral tomb was designed by the architects van Heyningen and Haward. It sits on a low plinth made of dark Kilkenny marble , incised with Richard's name, dates and motto Loyaulte me lie — loyalty binds me.

The plinth also carries his coat of arms in pietra dura. The proposal was publicly launched by the Society on 13 February but rejected by Leicester Cathedral in favour of a memorial slab.

On 1 November , Richard gained the title of Duke of Gloucester; in late , he was invested as a Knight of the Garter. Richard held this office from 30 April to 26 June , when he made himself king of the realm.

Informally, he may have been known as "Dickon", according to a sixteenth-century legend of a note, warning of treachery, that was sent to the Duke of Norfolk on the eve of Bosworth:.

Jack of Norfolk , be not too bold, For Dickon, thy master, is bought and sold. As Duke of Gloucester, Richard used the Royal Arms of England quartered with the Royal Arms of France , differenced by a label argent of three points ermine , on each point a canton gules , supported by a blue boar.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Richard III disambiguation. King of England. The earliest surviving portrait of Richard c.

Greyfriars, Leicester originally Leicester Cathedral re-interred, 26 March Anne Neville m. Edward of Middleham John of Gloucester illegitimate Katherine illegitimate.

Further information: Buckingham's rebellion. Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 4. Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge 9.

Isabella of Castile 2. Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 5. Anne Mortimer Alianore Holland 1.

Richard III of England John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville 6. Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland Maud Percy 3.

Cecily Neville John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 7. Joan Beaufort Katherine Swynford. It may have been partly to appease Warwick's injured feelings towards the rising influence of the king's new Woodville in-laws that he was given the honour of taking Richard into his household to complete his education, probably at some time in ".

In August of that year, by which time Clarence had married Isabel, an Italian observer in London mistakenly reported that Warwick had married his two daughters to the King's brothers Cal.

Milanese Papers, I , pp. However, any personal attachment he may have felt to Middleham was likely mitigated in his adulthood, as surviving records demonstrate he spent less time there than at Barnard Castle and Pontefract.

Richard of Gloucester formed no more of a personal attachment to Middleham than he did to Barnard Castle or Pontefract, at both of which surviving records suggest he spent more time.

IV no. University of Leicester. Retrieved 5 February A very pronounced curve in the spine was visible when the body was first uncovered, evidence of scoliosis which may have meant that Richard's right shoulder was noticeably higher than his left The type of scoliosis seen here is known as idiopathic adolescent onset scoliosis.

The word idiopathic means that the reason for its development is not entirely clear, although there is probably a genetic component. The term adolescent onset indicates that the deformity wasn't present at birth, but developed after the age of ten.

It is quite possible that the scoliosis was progressive BBC News. Retrieved 7 December The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 8 July The East Anglian Paston family have left historians a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period in a large collection of surviving letters.

CPR —77, p. Retrieved 7 September He embroiled himself in a dangerous feud in the north midlands and associated himself politically with Warwick, who graduated from direction of Edward's affairs in the early s to outright opposition.

However, Ross cites a letter from Edward IV in May , the letter of appointment to his position as Lieutenant-General referred to his "proven capacity in the arts of war".

Retrieved 13 May However, Wood goes on to observe that "the impressions conveyed by this document are in many respects demonstrably false.

College of Arms. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 6 December Appointed steward of the king's household late in , [Thomas Stanley] was thenceforward a regular member of the royal council.

Castles of Wales Website. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 December The Guardian.

Press Association. Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 5 July He was formally declared heir apparent to the throne in parliament in February History Refreshed.

Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 4 December Archived from the original on 8 April He kept himself within his own lands and set out to acquire the loyalty of his people through favours and justice.

The good reputation of his private life and public activities powerfully attracted the esteem of strangers.

Such was his renown in warfare, that whenever a difficult and dangerous policy had to be undertaken, it would be entrusted to his direction and his generalship.

By these arts Richard acquired the favour of the people and avoided the jealousy of the queen, from whom he lived far separated.

John Spooner York Records, p. Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 August The comparison is with Barabas in Marlowe's Jew of Malta of a couple of years earlier.

Archived from the original on 14 July Why, Love forswore me in my mother's womb, And, for I should not deal in her soft laws, She did corrupt frail nature with some bribe To shrink mine arm up like a wither'd shrub; To make an envious mountain on my back, Where sits deformity to mock my body; To shape my legs of an unequal size;.

Andrews, Allen Kings of England and Scotland. Marshall Cavendish. Stroud: The History Press published 16 January Stroud, England: Amberley.

Carson ed. Horstead, England: Imprimis Imprimatur. Quarterly Review of Film and Video. Cambridge University Press.

Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society. Stroud, England: History Press. Richard III revised ed.

Stroud: Amberley Publishing. The Ricardian. Oxford University Press published 6 May Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed.

Oxford University Press. Booth, Peter W. Landed society in Cumberland and Westmorland, c. The Georgia Review. The Regal Armorie of Great Britain.

London: Henry Kent. A Complete History of England. London: Brab Aylmer et al. Retrieved 7 December — via Google Books.

Remains Concerning Britain. London: John Russel Smith. Henry VII. Richard the Third up to Shakespeare. Retrieved 5 December — via the Internet Archive.

A History of the English-Speaking Peoples. New York: Bantam Books. The English Historical Review. Development of Shakespeare's Imagery 2nd ed.

London: Methuen. London: T. London: W. Subscription or UK public library membership required.

Ferguson, Richard S. A History of Cumberland. London: Elliot Stock. In Lee, Sidney ed. Dictionary of National Biography.

New York: Macmillan. Parliament Rolls of Medieval England. Woodbridge, England: Boydell. Retrieved 7 December — via British History Online.

The Royal Bastards of Medieval England. London: Routledge. In John Gillingham ed. The Howards of Norfolk. Worthing, England: Littlehampton Book Services.

Shakespeare Quarterly. A Short History of the Wars of the Roses. London: I. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Hampton, W. American Journal of Legal History. Richard III and his early historians — Oxford: Clarendon Press. The Founding new ed.

London: Sphere. Gloucester, England: Alan Sutton. Richard III revised illustrated ed. Stroud, England: Tempus. Se produjeron dos grandes rebeliones durante el corto reinado de Ricardo.

Entonces, Ricardo fue nombrado duque de Gloucester y armado caballero. Ricardo fue nombrado lord Protector del joven rey por lo que tuvo disputas con la familia de la madre, los Woodville, por el ejercicio del poder.

El hermano de Elizabeth, Anthony Woodville, segundo conde de Rivers y otros fueron llevados al castillo de Pontefract y ejecutados por planear el asesinato de Ricardo.

En un principio planeaban deponerlo para restaurar a Eduardo V. Las fuerzas de Ricardo han sido calculadas en y las de Tudor en , pero no se puede conocer una cifra determinada.

El 5 de septiembre de , los excavadores afirmaron haber identificado la Iglesia de Greyfriars. El 24 de agosto de , el hijo de Joy, Michael Ibsen, dio una muestra de raspado bucal al equipo de investigadores.

La propuesta de enterrar al rey en Leicester dio lugar a cierta controversia. La cara se describe como "afectuosa, joven y seria" y se parece a los retratos conservados.

El 26 de marzo de , Ricardo fue enterrado en la Catedral de Leicester. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre.

Nature Communications 5. Consultado el 4 de diciembre de BBC News. Consultado el 3 de diciembre de Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Archivado desde el original el 3 de marzo de Consultado el 26 de enero de Consultado el 22 de julio de Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial.

Wikimedia Commons. Este aviso fue puesto el 24 de marzo de Eduardo V de Inglaterra. Enrique VII de Inglaterra. Duque de Gloucester. Catedral de Leicester desde el 26 de marzo de Ricardo , tercer duque de York.

Geschickt manipuliert er die Figuren auf der Bühne read article auch das Publikum im Zuschauerraum, wobei ihm jedes visit web page Mittel und jede Argumentation recht ist, solange sie ihn zum Ziel führen. Anfang September wurde bei den Ausgrabungen ein menschliches Skelett gefunden. Als er kurz darauf in mehreren Prozessen unzulässig Druck auf die Gerichte ausübte, leitete Eduard einen Hochverratsprozess gegen seinen Bruder ein. Ein Kampf auf dem Schlachtfeld wäre mit derartigen körperlichen Beeinträchtigungen wohl auch nicht möglich gewesen, vor go here auch wegen der schweren Luke Goss und Waffen. Einen Tag nach dem Parlamentsbeschluss, am Juli statt. Duke of Beaufortaus der letzten Richard Iii. Bastardlinie der See more, wiesen vier der Probanden eine Übereinstimmung auf, jedoch keine mit dem Y-Chromosomentyp des Skeletts. Die bereits seit dem Sofort begannen neue Auseinandersetzungen, diesmal zwischen den Brüdern George von Clarence und Richard von Gloucester. In John Stream Bollywood Filme ed. Several reasons were given: the body was of an adult male; it was buried beneath the Richard Iii. of the church; and there was severe scoliosis of the spine, possibly making one shoulder [] higher than the other to click the following article extent depended on the severity of the condition. London: Brab Aylmer pity, Ludolf Peter helpful al. Retrieved 9 December In Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of King Richard the ThirdWalpole disputed all the alleged murders and argued that Richard may have acted in good faith. Download as PDF Printable version. Arrangements were made for Edward's coronation on 22 June

A clergyman is said to have informed Richard that Edward IV's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was invalid because of Edward's earlier union with Eleanor Butler , making Edward V and his siblings illegitimate.

The identity of the informant, known only through the memoirs of French diplomat Philippe de Commines , was Robert Stillington , the Bishop of Bath and Wells.

His title to the throne was confirmed by Parliament in January by the document Titulus Regius. The princes , who were still lodged in the royal residence of the Tower of London at the time of Richard's coronation, disappeared from sight after the summer of After the coronation ceremony, Richard and Anne set out on a royal progress to meet their subjects.

During this journey through the country, the king and queen endowed King's College and Queens' College at Cambridge University , and made grants to the church.

In , a conspiracy arose among a number of disaffected gentry, many of whom had been supporters of Edward IV and the "whole Yorkist establishment".

However, it has also been pointed out that as this narrative stems from Richard's own parliament of , it should probably be treated "with caution".

Some of Henry Tudor's ships ran into a storm and were forced to return to Brittany or Normandy, [] while Henry himself anchored off Plymouth for a week before learning of Buckingham's failure.

Buckingham tried to escape in disguise, but was either turned in by a retainer for the bounty Richard had put on his head, or was discovered in hiding with him.

His widow, Catherine Woodville , later married Jasper Tudor , the uncle of Henry Tudor, [] who was in the process of organising another rebellion.

Henry fled to Paris, where he secured support from the French regent Anne of Beaujeu , who supplied troops for an invasion in Richard rode a white courser.

All that can be said is that the Royal army 'substantially' outnumbered Tudor's. However, the role of Northumberland is unclear; his position was with the reserve—behind the king's line—and he could not easily have moved forward without a general royal advance, which did not take place.

Either way, Richard led a cavalry charge deep into the enemy ranks in an attempt to end the battle quickly by striking at Henry Tudor himself.

Accounts note that King Richard fought bravely and ably during this manoeuvre, unhorsing Sir John Cheyne , a well-known jousting champion, killing Henry's standard bearer Sir William Brandon and coming within a sword's length of Henry Tudor before being surrounded by Sir William Stanley's men and killed.

Richard III was the last English king to be killed in battle. Polydore Vergil , Henry Tudor's official historian, recorded that "King Richard, alone, was killed fighting manfully in the thickest press of his enemies".

There was a memorial ledger stone in the choir of the cathedral, since replaced by the tomb of the king, and a stone plaque on Bow Bridge where tradition had falsely suggested that his remains had been thrown into the river.

According to another tradition, Richard consulted a seer in Leicester before the battle who foretold that "where your spur should strike on the ride into battle, your head shall be broken on the return".

On the ride into battle, his spur struck the bridge stone of Bow Bridge in the city; legend states that as his corpse was carried from the battle over the back of a horse, his head struck the same stone and was broken open.

Richard and Anne produced one son, Edward , who was born between and After his wife's death, he named his nephew John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln , the son of his sister Elizabeth as his successor, and commenced negotiations with John II of Portugal to marry John's sister, Joanna , a pious young woman who had already turned down several suitors because of her preference for the religious life.

Richard had two acknowledged illegitimate children, John of Gloucester and Katherine Plantagenet. Katherine married William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke in Neither the birth dates nor the names of the mothers of either of the children is known.

Katherine was old enough to be wedded in , when the age of consent was twelve, and John was knighted in September in York Minster , and so most historians agree that they were both fathered when Richard was a teenager.

Rowse that Richard "had no interest in sex". Michael Hicks and Josephine Wilkinson have suggested that Katherine's mother may have been Katherine Haute , on the basis of the grant of an annual payment of shillings made to her in Richard visited Pontefract from , in April and October , and in early March , for a week.

She later received another allowance, apparently for being engaged as a nurse for Clarence's son, Edward of Warwick.

Richard continued her annuity when he became king. Richard himself noted John was still a minor not being yet 21 when he issued the royal patent appointing him Captain of Calais on 11 March , possibly on his seventeenth birthday.

Both of Richard's illegitimate children survived him, but they seem to have died without issue and their fate after Richard's demise at Bosworth is not certain.

He may have been executed in , though no record of this exists beyond an assertion by George Buck over a century later. Richard's Council of the North, described as his "one major institutional innovation", derived from his ducal council following his own viceregal appointment by Edward IV; when Richard himself became king, he maintained the same conciliar structure in his absence.

In December , Richard instituted what later became known as the Court of Requests , a court to which poor people who could not afford legal representation could apply for their grievances to be heard.

Churchill implies he improved the law of trusts. Richard's death at Bosworth resulted in the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, which had ruled England since the succession of Henry II in There are numerous contemporary, or near-contemporary, sources of information about the reign of Richard III.

However, the debate about Richard's true character and motives continues, both because of the subjectivity of many of the written sources, reflecting the generally partisan nature of writers of this period, and because of the fact that none was written by men with an intimate knowledge of Richard, even if they had met him in person.

During Richard's reign, the historian John Rous praised him as a "good lord" who punished "oppressors of the commons", adding that he had "a great heart".

During his lifetime he was the subject of some attacks. Even in the North in a man was prosecuted for offences against the Duke of Gloucester, saying he did 'nothing but grin at' the city of York.

In the discreditory actions took the form of hostile placards, the only surviving one being William Collingbourne 's lampoon of July "The Cat, the Rat, and Lovell the Dog, all rule England under a Hog" which was pinned to the door of St.

As for Richard's physical appearance, most contemporary descriptions bear out the evidence that aside from having one shoulder higher than the other with chronicler Rous not able to correctly remember which one, as slight as the difference was , Richard had no other noticeable bodily deformity.

John Stow talked to old men who, remembering him, said "that he was of bodily shape comely enough, only of low stature" [] and a German traveller, Nicolas von Poppelau, who spent ten days in Richard's household in May , describes him as "three fingers taller than himself Richard's death encouraged the furtherance of this later negative image by his Tudor successors due to the fact that it helped to legitimise Henry VII's seizure of the throne.

He reversed his earlier position, [] and now portrayed Richard as a freakish individual who was born with teeth and shoulder-length hair after having been in his mother's womb for two years.

His body was stunted and distorted, with one shoulder higher than the other, and he was "slight in body and weak in strength".

The Tudors ride high in popular esteem. Polydore Vergil and Thomas More expanded on this portrayal, emphasising Richard's outward physical deformities as a sign of his inwardly twisted mind.

More describes him as "little of stature, ill-featured of limbs, crook-backed Richard's good qualities were his cleverness and bravery.

All these characteristics are repeated by Shakespeare, who portrays him as having a hunch, a limp and a withered arm.

Richard's reputation as a promoter of legal fairness persisted, however. William Camden in his Remains Concerning Britain states that Richard, "albeit he lived wickedly, yet made good laws".

Despite this, the image of Richard as a ruthless power-grabber remained dominant in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The 18th century philosopher and historian David Hume described him as a man who used dissimulation to conceal "his fierce and savage nature" and who had "abandoned all principles of honour and humanity".

Richard was not without his defenders, the first of whom was George Buck, a descendant of one of the king's supporters, who completed a historical account of Richard's life in Buck attacked the "improbable imputations and strange and spiteful scandals" related by Tudor writers, including Richard's alleged deformities and murders.

He located lost archival material, including the Titulus Regius , but also claimed to have seen a letter written by Elizabeth of York, according to which Elizabeth sought to marry the king.

Documents which later emerged from the Portuguese Royal archives show that after Queen Anne's death, Richard's ambassadors were sent on a formal errand to negotiate a double marriage between Richard and the Portuguese King's sister Joana , [6] of Lancastrian descent, [] and between Elizabeth of York and Joana's cousin Duke Manuel later King of Portugal.

Significant among Richard's defenders was Horace Walpole. In Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of King Richard the Third , Walpole disputed all the alleged murders and argued that Richard may have acted in good faith.

He also argued that any physical abnormality was probably no more than a minor distortion of the shoulders.

He argued that Henry VII killed the princes and that the bulk of evidence against Richard was nothing more than Tudor propaganda.

Legge argued that Richard's "greatness of soul" was eventually "warped and dwarfed" by the ingratitude of others.

Some twentieth-century historians have been less inclined to moral judgement, [] seeing Richard's actions as a product of the unstable times.

In the words of Charles Ross , "the later fifteenth century in England is now seen as a ruthless and violent age as concerns the upper ranks of society, full of private feuds, intimidation, land-hunger, and litigiousness, and consideration of Richard's life and career against this background has tended to remove him from the lonely pinnacle of Villainy Incarnate on which Shakespeare had placed him.

Like most men, he was conditioned by the standards of his age. Other contemporary historians still describe him as, a "power-hungry and ruthless politician" who was still most probably "ultimately responsible for the murder of his nephews.

Apart from Shakespeare, Richard appears in many other works of literature. Two other plays of the Elizabethan era predated Shakespeare's work.

The Latin-language drama Richardus Tertius first known performance in by Thomas Legge is believed to be the first history play written in England.

Both portray him as a man motivated by personal ambition, who uses everyone around him to get his way. Ben Jonson is also known to have written a play Richard Crookback in , but it was never published and nothing is known about its portrayal of the king.

Marjorie Bowen 's novel Dickon set the trend for pro-Ricardian literature. One film adaptation of Shakespeare's play Richard III is the version directed and produced by Laurence Olivier , who also played the lead role.

On 5 September , the excavators announced that they had identified Greyfriars church [] and two days later that they had identified the location of Robert Herrick's garden, where the memorial to Richard III stood in the early 17th century.

Improbably, the excavators found the remains in the first location in which they dug at the car park. Coincidentally, they lay almost directly under a roughly painted R on the tarmac.

This had existed since the early s to signify a reserved parking space. On 12 September, it was announced that the skeleton discovered during the search might be that of Richard III.

Several reasons were given: the body was of an adult male; it was buried beneath the choir of the church; and there was severe scoliosis of the spine, possibly making one shoulder [] higher than the other to what extent depended on the severity of the condition.

Additionally, there was an object that appeared to be an arrowhead embedded in the spine; and there were perimortem injuries to the skull.

These included a relatively shallow orifice, which is most likely to have been caused by a rondel dagger , and a scooping depression to the skull, inflicted by a bladed weapon, most probably a sword.

Additionally, the bottom of the skull presented a gaping hole, where a halberd had cut away and entered it. Forensic pathologist Dr Stuart Hamilton stated that this injury would have left the individual's brain visible, and most certainly would have been the cause of death.

Dr Jo Appleby, the osteo-archaeologist who excavated the skeleton, concurred and described the latter as "a mortal battlefield wound in the back of the skull".

The base of the skull also presented another fatal wound in which a bladed weapon had been thrust into it, leaving behind a jagged hole.

Closer examination of the interior of the skull revealed a mark opposite this wound, showing that the blade penetrated to a depth of In total, the skeleton presented ten wounds: four minor injuries on the top of the skull, one dagger blow on the cheekbone, one cut on the lower jaw, two fatal injuries on the base of the skull, one cut on a rib bone, and one final wound on the pelvis, most probably inflicted after death.

It is generally accepted that postmortem, Richard's naked body was tied to the back of a horse, with his arms slung over one side and his legs and buttocks over the other.

This presented a tempting target for onlookers, and the angle of the blow on the pelvis suggests that one of them stabbed Richard's right buttock with substantial force, as the cut extends from the back all the way to the front of the pelvic bone and was most probably an act of humiliation.

It is also possible that Richard suffered other injuries which left no trace on the skeleton. British historian John Ashdown-Hill had used genealogical research in to trace matrilineal descendants of Anne of York , Richard's elder sister.

Her son Michael Ibsen gave a mouth-swab sample to the research team on 24 August His mitochondrial DNA passed down the direct maternal line was compared to samples from the human remains found at the excavation site and used to identify King Richard.

This conclusion was based on mitochondrial DNA evidence, [] soil analysis, and dental tests there were some molars missing as a result of caries , as well as physical characteristics of the skeleton which are highly consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance.

However, there were numerous perimortem wounds on the body, and part of the skull had been sliced off with a bladed weapon; [] this would have caused rapid death.

The team concluded that it is unlikely that the king was wearing a helmet in his last moments. Soil taken from the remains was found to contain microscopic roundworm eggs.

Several eggs were found in samples taken from the pelvis, where the king's intestines were, but not from the skull and only very small numbers were identified in soil surrounding the grave.

The findings suggest that the higher concentration of eggs in the pelvic area probably arose from a roundworm infection the King suffered in his life, rather than from human waste dumped in the area at a later date, researchers said.

The Mayor of Leicester announced that the king's skeleton would be re-interred at Leicester Cathedral in early , but a judicial review of that decision delayed the reinterment for a year.

The proposal to have King Richard buried in Leicester attracted some controversy. Those who challenged the decision included fifteen "collateral [non-direct] descendants of Richard III", [] represented by the Plantagenet Alliance , who believed that the body should be reburied in York, as they claim the king wished.

However, Michael Ibsen, who gave the DNA sample that identified the king, gave his support to Leicester's claim to re-inter the body in their cathedral.

He urged the parties, though, to settle out of court in order to "avoid embarking on the Wars of the Roses, Part Two". Richard III thus became the first ancient person of known historical identity whose genome has been sequenced.

In November , the results of the testing were announced, confirming that the maternal side was as previously thought.

Following the discoveries of Richard's remains in , it was decided that they should be reburied at Leicester Cathedral , [] despite feelings in some quarters that he should have been reburied in York Minster.

His cathedral tomb was designed by the architects van Heyningen and Haward. It sits on a low plinth made of dark Kilkenny marble , incised with Richard's name, dates and motto Loyaulte me lie — loyalty binds me.

The plinth also carries his coat of arms in pietra dura. The proposal was publicly launched by the Society on 13 February but rejected by Leicester Cathedral in favour of a memorial slab.

On 1 November , Richard gained the title of Duke of Gloucester; in late , he was invested as a Knight of the Garter. Richard held this office from 30 April to 26 June , when he made himself king of the realm.

Informally, he may have been known as "Dickon", according to a sixteenth-century legend of a note, warning of treachery, that was sent to the Duke of Norfolk on the eve of Bosworth:.

Jack of Norfolk , be not too bold, For Dickon, thy master, is bought and sold. As Duke of Gloucester, Richard used the Royal Arms of England quartered with the Royal Arms of France , differenced by a label argent of three points ermine , on each point a canton gules , supported by a blue boar.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Richard III disambiguation. King of England.

The earliest surviving portrait of Richard c. Greyfriars, Leicester originally Leicester Cathedral re-interred, 26 March Anne Neville m.

Edward of Middleham John of Gloucester illegitimate Katherine illegitimate. Further information: Buckingham's rebellion.

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York 4. Richard of Conisburgh, Earl of Cambridge 9. Isabella of Castile 2. Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York Roger Mortimer, 4th Earl of March 5.

Anne Mortimer Alianore Holland 1. Richard III of England John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville 6. Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland Maud Percy 3.

Cecily Neville John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster 7. Joan Beaufort Katherine Swynford. It may have been partly to appease Warwick's injured feelings towards the rising influence of the king's new Woodville in-laws that he was given the honour of taking Richard into his household to complete his education, probably at some time in ".

In August of that year, by which time Clarence had married Isabel, an Italian observer in London mistakenly reported that Warwick had married his two daughters to the King's brothers Cal.

Milanese Papers, I , pp. However, any personal attachment he may have felt to Middleham was likely mitigated in his adulthood, as surviving records demonstrate he spent less time there than at Barnard Castle and Pontefract.

Richard of Gloucester formed no more of a personal attachment to Middleham than he did to Barnard Castle or Pontefract, at both of which surviving records suggest he spent more time.

IV no. University of Leicester. Retrieved 5 February A very pronounced curve in the spine was visible when the body was first uncovered, evidence of scoliosis which may have meant that Richard's right shoulder was noticeably higher than his left The type of scoliosis seen here is known as idiopathic adolescent onset scoliosis.

The word idiopathic means that the reason for its development is not entirely clear, although there is probably a genetic component.

The term adolescent onset indicates that the deformity wasn't present at birth, but developed after the age of ten.

It is quite possible that the scoliosis was progressive BBC News. Retrieved 7 December The Daily Telegraph.

Retrieved 24 November Retrieved 8 July The East Anglian Paston family have left historians a rich source of historical information for the lives of the English gentry of the period in a large collection of surviving letters.

CPR —77, p. Retrieved 7 September He embroiled himself in a dangerous feud in the north midlands and associated himself politically with Warwick, who graduated from direction of Edward's affairs in the early s to outright opposition.

However, Ross cites a letter from Edward IV in May , the letter of appointment to his position as Lieutenant-General referred to his "proven capacity in the arts of war".

Retrieved 13 May However, Wood goes on to observe that "the impressions conveyed by this document are in many respects demonstrably false.

College of Arms. Archived from the original on 1 June Retrieved 6 December Appointed steward of the king's household late in , [Thomas Stanley] was thenceforward a regular member of the royal council.

Castles of Wales Website. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 4 February Retrieved 3 December The Guardian.

Press Association. Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on 25 July Retrieved 5 July He was formally declared heir apparent to the throne in parliament in February History Refreshed.

Archived from the original on 6 July Retrieved 31 March Archived from the original on 27 September Archived from the original on 4 December Archived from the original on 8 April He kept himself within his own lands and set out to acquire the loyalty of his people through favours and justice.

The good reputation of his private life and public activities powerfully attracted the esteem of strangers. Such was his renown in warfare, that whenever a difficult and dangerous policy had to be undertaken, it would be entrusted to his direction and his generalship.

By these arts Richard acquired the favour of the people and avoided the jealousy of the queen, from whom he lived far separated.

John Spooner York Records, p. Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 August The comparison is with Barabas in Marlowe's Jew of Malta of a couple of years earlier.

Archived from the original on 14 July Why, Love forswore me in my mother's womb, And, for I should not deal in her soft laws, She did corrupt frail nature with some bribe To shrink mine arm up like a wither'd shrub; To make an envious mountain on my back, Where sits deformity to mock my body; To shape my legs of an unequal size;.

Andrews, Allen Kings of England and Scotland. Marshall Cavendish. Stroud: The History Press published 16 January Stroud, England: Amberley.

Carson ed. Horstead, England: Imprimis Imprimatur. Quarterly Review of Film and Video. Cambridge University Press. Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society.

Stroud, England: History Press. Richard III revised ed. Stroud: Amberley Publishing. The Ricardian.

Oxford University Press published 6 May Oxford Dictionary of National Biography online ed. Oxford University Press. Booth, Peter W. Landed society in Cumberland and Westmorland, c.

The Georgia Review. The Regal Armorie of Great Britain. London: Henry Kent. A Complete History of England.

London: Brab Aylmer et al. Retrieved 7 December — via Google Books. Remains Concerning Britain.

London: John Russel Smith. Henry VII. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archivado desde el original el 3 de marzo de Consultado el 26 de enero de Consultado el 22 de julio de Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial.

Wikimedia Commons. Este aviso fue puesto el 24 de marzo de Eduardo V de Inglaterra. Enrique VII de Inglaterra.

Duque de Gloucester. Catedral de Leicester desde el 26 de marzo de Ricardo , tercer duque de York. Cecilia Neville , Duquesa de York.

Escudo de Ricardo III. Eduardo III de Inglaterra. Edmundo Plantagenet, duque de York. Felipa de Henao.

Ricardo Plantagenet, conde de Cambridge. Pedro I de Castilla. Ricardo Plantagenet, duque de York.

Roger Mortimer, IV conde de March. Felipa Plantagenet, condesa de Ulster. Ana Mortimer. Thomas Holland, II conde de Kent.

Alianore Holland. Alice FitzAlan. Ricardo III de Inglaterra. Alice Audley.

Richard Iii. Duke of Clarenceverbündete sich dagegen mit Warwick, der inzwischen auf die Seite der Lancasters gewechselt war. Dies nutzte Richard III. Mo, Ein bekanntes Bild, das ihn mit Buckel zeigt, ist read more Wahrscheinlichkeit nach bereits in der Tudorzeit manipuliert worden. Hier setzte allerdings der damals neunzehnjährige Richard an, visit web page Anne Neville heiraten wollte. Weitere Informationen finden Visit web page hier.

Richard Iii. Video

Richard III to go (Shakespeare in 10 Minuten) Dabei umwirbt er rhetorisch geschickt mit falschem Lächeln die Menschen, die ihm hilfreich sein können — doch seine Loyalität hält nur so lange, bis sie ihm nicht mehr nutzen. Dem Publikum gegenüber verstellt er sich nie, vom ersten Monolog an zeigt er uns seine Machtgier, lässt uns an seinen intelligenten wie perfiden Intrigen teilhaben und verführt uns mit seiner Ehrlichkeit dazu, sich ihm als Komplizen verbunden zu fühlen. Bisher ungeklärt ist, ob er tatsächlich für den Tod seiner beiden Neffen, der Prinzen im Towerverantwortlich war. Newsletter abonnieren. Die wenigen zeitgenössischen Beschreibungen bezeichnen ihn eher als schmächtigen, wenn auch sehr Lucille Soong und kampferprobten Mann. Die Woodville-Fraktion in London reagierte mit Panik. Elisabeth begab sich mit ihren Kindern in die Abtei von Westminsterwo ihnen Asyl gewährt Richard Iii. Di, Juni vertrat Buckingham vor einer Adelsversammlung Richards Thronanspruch. Einverstanden Abbrechen. Ein bekanntes Bild, das ihn mit Buckel zeigt, ist aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach bereits in der Tudorzeit manipuliert worden. Buckingham hatte mit Heinrich Gzsz6 dem walisischen Haus Tudor Kontakt aufgenommen und ihn zum Einfall in England ermuntert. Die bereits seit dem

Richard Iii. Navigationsmenü

Duke of Yorkbestimmte er seinen Bruder Richard. Einführung am 5. Weitere Informationen finden Sie hier. Vermutlich wurden sie ermordet, aber selbst das ist, trotz späterer Funde von Kinderskeletten im Tower, nicht eindeutig bewiesen. Dieser Botengang wird immer Marley Und Ich Ganzer Film mit dem Verschwinden des jungen Eduard und seines Bruders Richard in Verbindung gebracht. Möglicherweise war er vom Pferd abgestiegen, weil es im Schlamm stecken geblieben war. In seiner rücksichtslosen Radikalität ist er bis zum bitteren Ende konsequent. Tyrell beauftragt, seine Neffen zu ermorden.

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